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Kunci Identifikasi Insekta

Written By profitgoonline on Jumat, 30 November 2012 | 23.21

Kunci Determinasi
Untuk memudahkan menelusuri tahapan klasifikasi suatu organisme dapat digunakan kunci determinasi. Kunci determinasi adalah uraian keterangan tentang ciri-ciri makhluk hidup yang disusun berurut mulai dari ciri umum hingga ke ciri khusus untuk menemukan kelompok/spesies makhluk hidup. Urutan daftar ciri-ciri itu disusun berupa nomor-nomor, biasanya bersifat dikotom. Lalu, bagaimana cara menggunakannya ? Untuk menggunakan kunci determinasi, mula-mula kamu harus mengetahui nama bagian yang diamati. Kemudian cocokkan dengan ciri-ciri yang ada pada kunci determinasi. kunci determinasi juga kadang disebut kunci Identifikasi



(insect with one pair of wings)

1aInsect with wings (though forewings may be partly or entirely stiffened as 'wing-covers' or 'wing-cases' and not used in flight)2
1bInsect without wings (though some forms may retain vestigial wings resembling small scales or pads)32
2aOne pair of wings3
2bTwo pairs of wings9
3aDorsal surface of the prothorax extended backwards over the abdomen; hind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect grasshopper-like in general appearanceOrthoptera
3bInsect not like this4
4aWings horny or leathery (stiffened) and not used for flying5
4bWings membranous (flexible) and used for flying6
5aWings overlapping at least a little in the centre-line and with obvious veins presentPhasmida
5bWings (elytra) meeting in the centre-line (sometimes fused together) and without veins (elytra may have longitudinal grooves or striae which should not be confused with veins)Coleoptera
6aAbdomen with one or more long terminal appendages7
6bAbdomen without terminal appendages8
7aWings with only one forked vein; antennae relatively long; small insect usually less than 5 mm longHemiptera
7bWings with many veins; antenae short; alrge insectEphemeroptera
8aThorax with a pair of club-shaped structures (halteres) lying just in front of the wingsStrepsiptera
8bThorax with a pair of club-shaped structures (halteres) lying just behind the wings (may be hidden by body hairs and other structures)Diptera

(insect with two pairs of wings)
9aForewings partly or entirely horny or leathery and forming stiffened covers for the membranous hindwings10
9bBoth pairs of wings membranous (flexible) and used for flying (though wings sometimes feather-like rather than membranous or their membranous nature may be obscured by a dense covering of hairs, scales or waxy powder)16
10aMouth-parts forming a tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (rostrum usually folded backwards under the body when not in use)Hemiptera
10bMouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and chewing11
11aForewings overlapping at least a little in the centre-line and usually with many veins present12
11bForewings (elytra) meeting in the centre-line and without veins (though elytra may have longitudinal grooves or striae which should not be confused with veins)14
12aHind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect grasshopper-like in general appearanceOrthoptera
12bHind-legs not modified for jumping and usually similar in thickness to the middle-legs; insect not grasshopper-like13
13aProthorax much larger than the head; cerci nearly always many-segmented and fairly prominentDyctioptera
13bProthorax and head of similar size; cerci always unsegmented and very shortPhasmida
14aForewings (elytra) long and covering all or most of the abdomenColeoptera
14bForewings (elytra) short and leaving much of the abdomen exposed15
15aAbdomen with a pair of terminal pincers or forcepsDermaptera
15bAbdomen without terminal pincersColeoptera
16aWings very narrow without veins and fringed with long hairs (feather-like); tarsi 1- or 2-segmented (small slender insect often found in flowers)Thysanoptera
16bWings broader with veins present; if wings fringed with long hairs then tarsi comprised of more than 2 segments (though wing veins of some insects may be much reduced and hardly visible or partly obscured by hairs, scales or waxy powder)17
17aHindwings noticeably smaller than forewings18
17bBoth pairs of wings similar in size or hindwings larger than forewings26
18aWings and much of the body covered with white waxy powder; tiny insect usually less than 2-3 mm long19
18bNo such powdery covering20
19aWings held flat over the body at rest; mouth-parts forming a tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (rostrum usually folded backwards under the body when not in use)Hemiptera
19bWings held roof-wise over the body at rest; mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for bitingNeuroptera
20aWings more or less covered with minute scales; mouth-parts when present forming a coiled proboscis or 'tongue'Lepidoptera
20bWings usually transparent (without scales though often hairy); mouth-parts not forming a coiled proboscis21
21aForewings with many cross-veins making a network pattern; abdomen with 2 or 3 long thread-like terminal appendagesEphemeroptera
21bForewings with relatively few cross-veins; abdomen usually without or with only very short terminal appendages (cerci)22
22aWings noticeably covered with hairs; insect moth-like in general appearanceTrichoptera
22bWings not noticeably hairy (though may be fringed with hairs or tiny surface hairs may be seen if wings examined under a microscope or strong hand-lens)23
23aMouth-parts forming a tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (rostrum usually folded backwards under the body when not in use; abdomen sometimes with tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end)Hemiptera
23bMouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and chewing24
24aTarsi 4- or 5-segmented; hard-bodied insects with abdomen often constricted at its base into a petiole or 'waist' (except Symphyta)Hymonoptera
24bTarsi 2- or 3-segmented; small soft-bodied insect25
25aAntennae with at least 12 segmentsPsocoptera
25bAntennae with only 9 segmentsZoraptera
26aTarsi 5-segmented27
26bTarsi 3- or 4-segmented29
27aWings noticeably covered with hairs; insect moth-like in general appearanceTrichoptera
27bWings not noticeably hairy (though tiny hairs may be seen if wings examined under a microscope or strong hand-lens)28
28aFront of head extended downwards to form a beak-like structure with jaws (mandibles) at its tipMecoptera
28bNo such beak-like extension of the headNeuroptera
29aTarsi 4-segmentedIsoptera
29bTarsi 3-segmented30
30aWings noticeably hairy; front tarsi with first segment greatly swollenEmbioptera
30bWings not noticeably hairy; front tarsi simple31
31aWings with many cross-veins making a network pattern and held away from the body at rest (either outstretched or folded vertically); antennae short and inconspicuousOdonata
31bWings with relatively few cross-veins and folded flat over the body at rest; antennae long and slender (longer than width of head)Plecoptera

(insect without wings)
32aSmall soft-bodied insect living on terrestrial plants with the body encased under a protective shield ('scale') or partly covered with white waxy filaments or powderHemiptera
32bInsect not like this33
33aThoracic legs absent or enclosed in a membrane preventing any movement(Larvae and pupae of most
Orders of Endopterygota)
33bThoracic legs present and fully functional34
34aAbdomen with false-legs or prolegs (fleshy structures different from and additional to the jointed legs of the thorax); insect caterpillar-like in general appearance35
34bAbdomen without prolegs; insect not caterpillar-like37
35aNo more than 5 pairs of prolegsLarvae Of lepidoptera
35bAt least 6 pairs of prolegs36
36aHead with a single small eye (ocellus) on each sideLarvae of Hymenoptera
36bHead with several small eyes (ocelli) on each sideLarvae of Mecoptera
37aInsect living in a terrestrial habitat or on the surface of water (not underwater)38
37bInsect truly aquatic (living underwater)70
38aAbdomen with cerci or other terminal appendages (take care not to confuse terminal hairs or bristles with cerci)39
38bAbdomen without such terminal appendages (though may have small appendages on proximal segments or a pair of tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end)56
39aAbdomen with 6 segments or fewer; usually with a forked terminal appendage (springing organ) folded under the rear end when not in useCollembola
39bAbdomen with more than 6 segments (usually 8 or more clearly visible); terminal appendages of a different form40
40aAntennae short and often inconspicuous (at most about the same length as the head)41
40bAntennae long and conspicuous (usually much longer than the head)42
41aTarsi with at least 3 segments (usually 5-segmented)Phasmida
41bTarsi with fewer than 3 segments (often reduced to single or paired claws on the end of each leg)Larvae of Coleoptera
42aHind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect grasshopper-like in general appearanceOrthoptera
42bHind-legs not modified for jumping and usually similar in thickness to the middle-legs; insect not grasshopper-like43
43aTerminal appendages of abdomen forming a pair of pincers or forceps44
43bTerminal appendages of abdomen not like this     45
44aTarsi 3-segmentedDermaptera
44bTarsi 1-segmentedDiplura
45aTerminal appendages of abdomen long (much more than half the length of the abdomen)46
45bTerminal appendages of abdomen short (less than half the length of the abdomen)48
46aAbdomen with 3 terminal appendages (paired cerci and a median filament)Thysanura
46bAbdomen with 2 terminal appendages (cerci)47
47aTarsi 3-segmented; terminal appendages of abdomen (cerci) unsegmentedDermaptera
47bTarsi 1-segmented; terminal appendages of abdomen (cerci) many-segmentedDiplura
48aTarsi usually 5-segmented(though sometimes fewer on regenerated legs of Phasmida)49
48bTarsi with fewer than 5 segments on all legs52
49aFront of head extended downwards to form a beak-like structure with jaws (mandibles) at its tipMecoptera
49bNo such beak-like extension of the head50
50aProthorax much larger than the headDyctioptera
50bProthorax and head of similar size (prothorax at most only slightly larger than the head)51
51aCerci 8-segmented and moderately longGrylloblattodea
51bCerci unsegmented and very shortPhasmida
52aTarsi usually 4-segmentedIsoptera
52bTarsi with fewer than 4 segments53
53aTarsi 1-segmentedDiplura
53bTarsi 2- or 3-segmented54
54aTarsi 2-segmentedZoraptera
54bTarsi 3-segmented55
55aFront tarsi with first segment greatly swollen; cerci 2-segmentedEmbioptera
55bFront tarsi not swollen; cerci unsegmentedPhasmida


(insect without wings - terrestrial - no terminal appendages)

56aInsect living as a parasite on a warm-blooded animal or closely associated with such an animal (i.e. on the body or in the nest or den of a bird or mammal)57
56bInsect not parasitic on a warm-blooded animal61
57aBody flattened from side to side (jumping insect)     Shiponaptera
57bBody flattened from top to bottom58
58aHead partly withdrawn into the thorax59
58bHead not withdrawn into the thorax60
59aAntennae short and inconspicuous (much shorter than the head); legs with strong and distinctly hooked tarsal clawsDiptera
59bAntennae long and conspicuous (more than twice the length of the head); legs with small and only slightly curved tarsal clawsHemiptera
60aAt least the prothorax distinct from the other thoracic segments; legs with small tarsal claws; mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting     Mallophaga
60bAll the thoracic segments fused into a single unit; legs with large tarsal claws which can close tightly against the legs; mouth-parts forming a tube-like proboscis for piercing and sucking (proboscis retracted within the head when not in use)Siphunculata
61aAntennae absent(minute soil-living insects usually less than 2 mm long)Protura
61bAntennae present62
62aAbdomen strongly constricted at its base into a narrow petiole or 'waist'; antennae often bent into an elbowed shapeHymenoptera
62bAbdomen not constricted into a 'waist'; antennae more or less straight63
63aBody covered with dense scales and flattened hairsLepidoptera
63bBody bare or with sparse bristle-like hairs64
64aMouth-parts forming a tube-like proboscis or rostrum for piercing and/or sucking (often folded backwards under the head when not in use)65
64bMouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and/or chewing        67
65aTarsi usually 5-segmentedDiptera
65bTarsi with fewer than 5 segments66
66aProboscis small and cone shaped (much shorter in length than the head) (small slender insect often found in flowers)Thysanoptera
66bProboscis or rostrum long and jointed (nearly always longer than the head) (abdomen sometimes with tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end)Hemiptera
67aAntennae short and often inconspicuous (at most about the same length as the head)68
67bAntennae long and conspicuous (much longer than the head)69
68aAbdomen with 6 segments or fewerCollembola
68bAbdomen with more than 6 segments (usually 8 or more clearly visible)Larvae of Variuor order
69aHead narrower than the body; mandibles very long and protruding forward well in front of the head (clearly visible from above)Larvae of Neuroptera
69bHead as wide or nearly as wide as the body; mandibles small and not protruding in front of the head (not visible from above)Psocoptera


(insect without wings - aquatic)

70aMouth-parts with a tube-like 'beak' or with long stylets for piercing and sucking71
70bMouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and/or chewing72
71aMouth-parts forming a robust tube-like 'beak' (rostrum) folded backwards under the body when not in useHemiptera
71bMouth-parts forming a pair of long and slender stylets extending more or less straight forward in front of the head between the antennae and about as long or longer than the latterLarvae of Neuroptera
72aHead with a hinged protrusible grasping organ (or 'mask') bearing large terminal claws (normally folded beneath the head when not in use)Nymphs of Odonata
72bNo hinged protrusible 'mask' beneath the head74
73aAbdomen with pairs of feather-like or flat plate-like lateral appendages on some segments (gill filaments) and 3 long terminal appendages (paired cerci and a median filament)Nymphs of Ephemeroptera
73bWithout these features combined74
74aAbdomen without lateral appendages but with 2 long terminal appendages (cerci); antennae long and slender (much longer than the head)Nymphs of Plecoptera
74bWithout these features combined75
75aAbdomen with pairs of multi-jointed feather-like lateral appendages on some segments (gill filaments) and sometimes a single terminal appendageLarvae of Neuroptera
75bAbdomen without lateral appendages (gill filaments) or if such appendages present then always unjointed76
76aLast abdominal segment with a pair of fleshy appendages each bearing a strong claw; middle- and hind-legs longer than the width of the thorax; body often enclosed in a tubular case made from small pebbles or other debrisLarvae of Trichoptera
76bWithout these features combinedLarvae of Coleoptera
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sumber : 
  1. belajar.kemdiknas.go.id 
  2. http://www.kendalluk.com/key1.htm
 
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